Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing

A 'reference' gives the reader of your essay, assignment, etc., directions to the book, journal, etc., where the information is held.

There are many referencing systems.  At LJMU the Harvard referencing style is normally used, but even in this system there are variations, so always ask your tutor for their preferred style.

Library and Student Support Services have written a new guide to Harvard Referencing:

Harvard Referencing Guide

Please be aware that the Harvard style is not used for legal documents.  For this you are advised to use OSCOLA (The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities).  Cardiff University provides a useful tutorial on using OSCOLA: Citing Legal Documents (PDF)

You need to give a reference :

  • If you quote the exact words of another author
  • If you paraphrase or summarise a passage by another author
  • If you use an idea or material based directly on the work of another author
Failure to do so can leave you open to accusations of PLAGIARISM. The University of Leicester and Cardiff University have each produced online tutorials to explain what plagiarism is and how to avoid it: http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/ssds/sd/ld/resources/study/plagiarism/plagiarism-tutorial

Page last modified 02 February 2015.

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